What are the Effects of Caffeine?

Coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages, served hot and cold. This article spells out research findings on the pros and cons of this drink.

In this meta- analysis of prospective studies, the association between coffee consumption and the risk of cognitive decline and dementia are researched. (Nutrition.2016. Jun:32(6):628-36)

Eleven prospective studies, including 29,155 participants were included in the meta-analysis. This study showed that higher coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Further research is needed to determine the association between coffee consumption and cognitive decline or dementia. (Nutrition.2016. Jun:32(6):628-36)

From 6 prospective cohort studies and a total of 172,567 participants and 37,135 cases of hypertension were included. (Am J Clin Nutr. 2011. Jun:93(6):1212-9)

Results suggested that habitual coffee consumption of more than 3 cups per day was not associated with increased risk of hypertension compared with less than 1 cup per day. However a slightly elevated risk appeared to be associated with slight to moderate consumption of 1 to 3 cups per day. (Am J Clin Nutr. 2011. Jun:93(6):1212-9)

There is considerable controversy related to the consumption of coffee and cardiovascular disease (CVD). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the dose-response relationship of long term coffee consumption and CVD. (Circulation. 2014.Feb 11:129(6):643-59)

Results showed that moderate coffee consumption led to decreased CVD risk, with the lowest risk occurring with 3 to 5 cups per day. Also, heavy coffee consumption was not associated with elevated CVD risk. (Circulation. 2014.Feb 11:129(6):643-59)

Recent studies have showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular disease and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, endometrial and liver cancer. In this research article, the authors investigated the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system.(Autoimmun Rev. 2017. May 4(17)30127-1)

Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing Rhematoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes. Conversely, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis (MS), primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. .(Autoimmun Rev. 2017. May 4(17)30127-1)

A review of the available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers up to May 2016 was completed. Coffee consumption was not associated with overall cancer risk. (Eur J Caner Prev. 2017. March)

Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer, endometrial cancer colorectal cancer, oral-pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer.

A favourable effect was also found on liver enzymes and cirrhosis.

Other studies found an increased likelihood of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking. (Eur J Caner Prev. 2017. March)

In a study from 2,914 participants, coffee consumption and brain function was examined.

The study showed that higher coffee consumption was associated with lower prevalence of lacunar infarcts. Also found was that the highest category of coffee consumption was associated with better executive function. However, memory function was decreased.

(J Alzheimers Dis 2016 May 3:53(2):451-61)

To conclude studies have shown mostly beneficial effects of coffee drinking. However the long term findings of regular coffee drinking seems to be largely un-researched and needs further scientific investigation.

  1. Liu, Q.P Et.al.(2016) Habitual coffee consumption and risk of cognitive decline/dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.Nutrition.Jun;32(6):628-36.
  1. Et .al (2011) Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011. Jun:93(6):1212-9)
  1. Ding, M et.al.(2014) Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.Circulation. Feb 11;129(6):643-59
  1. K et.al. (2017). Coffee and autoimmunity: More than a mere hot beverage! Autoimmun Rev May 4.(17)30127-1.
  1. Alicandro,G et.al.(2017) Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.Mar 10.
  1. Araujo LF et.al (2016) Association of Coffee Consumption with MRI Markers and Cognitive Function: A Population-Based Study May 3:53 (2) 451-61